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  1. #1

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    The Major Mode is one of the most commonly used mode in Jazz and in music as a whole.
    A Mode is a set of scales based off of another scale. The 4 most common modes are the Major mode, Pentatonic mode, Melodic Minor Mode, and the Harmonic Minor Mode.

    If you dont already know some basic music theory go check out my first thread to learn the basics. Now you should already know the Major scale. Now, the Major mode is based off of the Major scale. Hence the name, there are 7 scales within the Major mode, as well as a chord scale. A chord scale is a set of chords that fit with a mode. We will discuss this later.

    Now onto the lesson!

    First we have to find the First or I scale of the Mode. In our case this would be the Major Scale. Now knowing your basic music theory, learned from the first lesson. This is built as W-W-H-W-W-W-H. Lets use the key of C as we did before since it contains no sharps or flats. So the Major/Ionian scale in C would be C-D-E-F-G-A-B. Also written as 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8.

    To find the next scale within the mode we have to go up the next note in the scale. For this well have to write the scale in 2 octaves. Lets do this now. C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C-D-E-F-G-A-B. So if we go up the next note in the scale itd be D-E-F-G-A-B-C. This is known as the Dorian scale. Written as 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7 in number form, it can also be written as 2-3-4-5-6-7-1-2, and as W-H-W-W-W-H-W-W in Wholes and half steps. Although we can write it as 2-3-4-5-6-7-1-2 its alot easier to just flatten the 3rd and 7th of a Ionian scale than to play a 2 octave Ionian and find the 2nd note of it every time you want to play a Dorian.

    Now... the Dorian scale is the II scale in the Major Mode. If you look at it youll see it contains all the same notes as the C Major/Ionian scale (From this point on were just going to refer to the Major scale as the Ionian scale). Since the D Dorian contains all the same notes as the C Ionian that means we can play a D Dorian anytime we want to play the C Ionian, and vice versa. So what have we learned so far?

    First scale in the Major mode is the Ionian.

    I.) Ionian 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 W-W-H-W-W-W-H

    Second scale in the Major mode is the Dorian.

    II.) Dorian 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7 W-H-W-W-W-H-W. In number form it can also be written as 2-3-4-5-6-7-1-2 as stated before.
    Wow! That was a whole lot easier than you thought now wasn't it? Lets keep doing this until we find all the scales.

    The next scale in the Major Mode is the Phyrgian, lets do what we did before to find the Dorian scale. C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C-D-E-F-G-A-B-C. Since weve already found the 2nd scale and know that it started on the 2nd note of the Ionian scale that means we have to move onto the 3rd note. Lets do this now, the 3rd note of the Ionian scale in the key of C would be E. So lets go up the scale until we find the next E. E-F-G-A-B-C-D. So that would be written as 3-4-5-6-7-1-2 in number form. Or you could just say 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7. So if you took an Ionian scale and flattened the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 7th note you would get a Phyrgian scale! Written as H-W-W-W-H-W-W, you should be noticing a pattern now. As you can see it contains all of the same notes as a C Ionian and a D Dorian if were in the key of C. So anytime you want to play an E Phyrgian you can play a D Dorian or a C Ionian!

    Lets look at the scales we know so far.

    I.) Ionian. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7. W-W-H-W-W-W-H

    II.) Dorian 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7. W-H-W-W-W-H-W

    III.) Phyrgian 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7. H-W-W-W-H-W-W

    Wow! Alright, now you should be catching onto how to find the next scale in the mode.
    Go to the next note in the scale, from that note go up till you find the next note in the octave. And then find which notes to flatten or sharpen based from the Ionian scale, as well as finding the Whole and half steps to build the scale. So the fourth note would be F. Going up till you find the next note and octave up. F-G-A-B-C-D-E, and then finding which notes to flatten or sharpen based from the Ionian scale. 1-2-3-#4-5-6-7. In W and H steps this would be W-W-W-H-W-W-H. This would be the 4th scale in the Major Mode. It is called the Lydian scale. You should be catching onto how to build these, and that it contains the same notes as the C Ionian, D Dorian, and E Phyrgian. So what have we learned so far?

    I.) Ionian 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 W-W-H-W-W-W-H

    II.) Dorian 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7 W-H-W-W-W-H-W

    III.) Phyrgian 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 H-W-W-W-H-W-W

    IV.) Lydian 1-2-3-#4-5-6-7 W-W-W-H-W-W-H

    Now lets go on to the 5th scale in the Major mode. Starting on the 5th note of the scale it would be G-A-B-C-D-E-F. The numbers would be 1-2-3-4-5-6-b7. The whole and half steps would be W-W-H-W-W-H-W. This is known as the Mixolydian scale.

    Lets just keep moving on till we keep find the rest of the scales. The 6th note of the Ionian scale in the key of C is A, A-B-C-D-E-F-G. The number pattern would be 1-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7. The W and H step pattern would be W-H-W-W-H-W-W. This is known as the Aeolian scale, it is also known as the Minor scale.

    Now the last note in the scale before we get back to C would be B. So that means that we have found all the scales in this mode. So B-C-D-E-F-G-A, the number pattern would be 1-b2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7, the W and H pattern would be H-W-W-H-W-W-W. This scale is known as the Locrian scale.

    Congrats! Youve just found all the scales in the Major Mode! That wasnt so hard now was it? So what have we learned, lets write the Major Mode in the key of C since thats how we learned it.

    I.) C Ionian/Major 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 W-W-H-W-W-W-H

    II). D Dorian 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7 W-H-W-W-W-H-W

    III.) E Phyrgian 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 H-W-W-W-H-W-W

    IV.) F Lydian 1-2-3-#4-5-6-7 W-W-W-H-W-W-H

    V.) G Mixolydian 1-2-3-4-5-6-b7 W-W-H-W-W-H-W

    VI.) A Aeolian/Minor 1-2-b3-4-5-b6-b7 W-H-W-W-H-W-W

    VII.) B Locrian 1-b2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7 H-W-W-H-W-W-W

    So anytime you play a C Ionian you can play a D Dorian, E Phyrgian, so on and so fourth.

    I was going to explain the chord scale, but this should be enough to keep you busy and it was already and awefully long lesson. So Ill write another lesson sometime this week or next week about it.

    If you have any questions or need me to explain something just post below! Thanks! (:

    -cravingmusic-

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    The Jazz Guitar Chord Dictionary
     
  3. #2

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    nice easy to understand clear explanation.

  4. #3

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    A Mode is a set of scales based off of another scale. The 4 most common modes are the Major mode, Pentatonic mode, Melodic Minor Mode, and the Harmonic Minor Mode.
    I think you're going to get some major (pun intended) disagreement on your definition of "mode."

  5. #4
    Baltar Hornbeek Guest
    Quote Originally Posted by M-ster
    I think you're going to get some major (pun intended) disagreement on your definition of "mode."
    It's an obvious trawl, no?

  6. #5

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    This is why beginners get confused. Accurate concept, but questionable terminology.

  7. #6

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    I have a Question regarding triads. What name do you give a major triad with a lowered 5th? Example: C E Gb

  8. #7

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    Quote Originally Posted by whatswisdom
    I have a Question regarding triads. What name do you give a major triad with a lowered 5th? Example: C E Gb
    C Flat 5

  9. #8

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    Ignorance is not a fault, but feigning knowledge is a sin. So why does this ignorant arsehole feel entitled to offer lessons on things he doesn't understand and why is everyone being so tolerant towards him?

  10. #9
    I agree with this post from cravinmusic
    This is the way I learned it

    I'm not a proponent of the use of the term 'mode', per se

    I think it should say scales instead of modes

    A Mode is a set of scales based off of another scale. The 4 most common scales are the Major scales, Pentatonic scales, Melodic Minor scales, and the Harmonic Minor scales.

    IMHO
    Last edited by stratcat33511; 04-13-2011 at 08:35 PM. Reason: added IMHO

  11. #10
    Please no one be tolerant towards me. If I make a mistake call me out, I'm here to learn and help others out with my knowledge.
    Funny thing is, I actually learned that definition of modes from my music teacher. Thank you for correcting me. I'm just trying to help out other people getting into the genre.
    Last edited by cravingmusic; 04-13-2011 at 05:46 PM.

  12. #11
    Quote Originally Posted by JohnRoss
    Ignorance is not a fault, but feigning knowledge is a sin. So why does this ignorant arsehole feel entitled to offer lessons on things he doesn't understand and why is everyone being so tolerant towards him?
    John... thanks. Im 14, completely self taught, worked my ass off to learn all of this. I was just trying to help others out and put all the information in one place just like I wanted when I first started. Calling me an ignorant arsehole (Its spelled asshole buddy...) is totally a way to make me wanna keep playing jazz.

    Now aside from your ignorance towards others who dont know nearly as much as you, is there anything else you see wrong with my lesson?

  13. #12

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    cravingmusic, good for you, keep it up, you're doing very well, and as I said above very well stated, and thought out.'

    don't worry about the rude people here, just ignore them, and learn things from the others. There are quite a few people that are helpful.

    you're smart, and you'll figure out who is who pretty quickly.

  14. #13
    Thanks for the encouragement
    Again if you see anything wrong with my lesson please let me know, I'd rather get cussed out and learn what's wrong than just have someone pass it up.

  15. #14

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    Thanks for the encouragement
    Again if you see anything wrong with my lesson please let me know, I'd rather get cussed out and learn what's wrong than just have someone pass it up.
    I did in a couple of pm's, one you didn't answer, as for spelling it depends where in the world you live.You seem to forget that one minute you are asking basic ????'s then you are posting leesons

    Tom

  16. #15

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    Quote Originally Posted by oilywrag
    I did in a couple of pm's, one you didn't answer, as for spelling it depends where in the world you live.You seem to forget that one minute you are asking basic ????'s then you are posting leesons

    Tom

    the guy is fourteen.

  17. #16

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    Man, you're doing well to have a handle on this stuff at 14. You DO know this stuff, and all your theory is sound. I agree with Cosmic re: terminology - not your fault if that's how it was explained to you.

    I like your teaching style.

    I was about 15 when a teacher first gave me a modal lesson and he didn't exlpain it amazingly well - I ended up with a feeling of it being much more powerful theory than, in fact, it is. Ultimately I found myself in a bit of a 'castle made of sand' when some of my 'theory' foundation fell out from under me.

    I think from your post you understand this concept well, possibly in spite of your teacher. Being able to communicate a slightly clearer and more concise explanation might be helpful in preventing you from having a similar experience to mine.

    And ultimately you should get used to this stuff on the instrument over a long period of time. It helps to give you a tangible connection to the theory, and using it to make music is the reason we bother to learn it (althought I just like theory).
    Last edited by Sharks; 04-15-2011 at 03:50 PM.

  18. #17

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    Mark he never said he was 14,when he first posted plus I PM'd him before any one else had posted.If some one PM's me I will always reply.Then again thats just me.Unlike some people on this forum I won't correct some one in public,a simple pm is far better.He could have edited his first post and no one would have been any the wiser..

    Cheers

    Tom

  19. #18
    Baltar Hornbeek Guest
    This lesson gets a F . Go back and redo all you homework, no milk and cookies for you tonight.

  20. #19

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    Quote Originally Posted by Baltar Hornbeek
    This lesson gets a F . Go back and redo all you homework, no milk and cookies for you tonight.
    and it's wrong where?

    the whole "modal" thing is overblown. cause, probably Miles said once, he was playing "modal" jazz. to make a pun..... so what.

    In my standard, widely used "elementary rudiments of music" textbook, this subject occupies a whole two pages, out of two hundred.

    again, he's wrong where?

  21. #20

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    Quote Originally Posted by oilywrag
    Mark he never said he was 14,when he first posted plus I PM'd him before any one else had posted.If some one PM's me I will always reply.Then again thats just me.Unlike some people on this forum I won't correct some one in public,a simple pm is far better.He could have edited his first post and no one would have been any the wiser..

    Cheers

    Tom
    yeah, sorry, I just think people overreact a little sometimes, I guess I did here.


  22. #21
    Yes I do ask rather basic questions but thats compared to your foundation of knowledge... I learn new things every week and usually everything just sorta keeps clicking for me. When I dont understand something I sit down with pen, paper, and my guitar for a few hours and see if I dont get it. If not its right back onto here, most of the questions I ask get answered within a few hours either from posts or from me just learning. Sorry about the mess up on modes again...
    But please, quit with the hate, if you see something wrong then correct me. If your gonna bash on me at least lemme learn from it.

  23. #22

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    John... thanks. Im 14, completely self taught, worked my ass off to learn all of this. I was just trying to help others out and put all the information in one place just like I wanted when I first started. Calling me an ignorant arsehole (Its spelled asshole buddy...) is totally a way to make me wanna keep playing jazz.

    Now aside from your ignorance towards others who dont know nearly as much as you, is there anything else you see wrong with my lesson?
    Where to start? Of course I wouldn't have come down heavy on you if I had know you were so young, so congratulations for being able to write like an adult. And congratulations also for having being only slightly off the mark with your synthesis of how modes are built, though I don't understand how you can have got this from your music teacher and be completely self-taught at the same time, I suppose you young people nowadays are more versatile than we used to be.

    I absolutely (totally) don't want to put you off playing jazz, but if I can persuade you not to try to give lessons to people you shouldn't be giving lessons to, I think I will have done you a favour in life.

    The 'arsehole' spelling is British. Again, I would not have been so basic if I had known how tender your age was.

    What's wrong with your lesson? You've been told already, and as far as the rest of your last sentence goes, I'll accept it as a reprimand - we adults make mistakes as well.

  24. #23

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    Hey, CM. Glad a youngster is hitting jazz and looking into a future of teaching. I started teaching at 17 or so; just after I could handle barre chords. My lessons got better as I learned myself. You'll learn a TON from teaching. I learn stuff everyday still (and have had to revise my book several times in the last 6 months due to slightly misused terms, etc). Jazz vernacular vs. classical terminology is a tough crazy mess.

    Hang with the dudes here, and soak it up. I call this forum site the "shark-tank" because it can be a little intimidating if not worse at times.

  25. #24

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    Best way to learn something is to teach it to someone else.

    Don't let Baltar phase ya, he'll grow on you, I guarantee.

  26. #25

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    ...please, quit with the hate...
    Good afternoon, cravingmusic...
    Firstly, congratulations on a clear explanation; nicely paced, nicely phrased. Personally I'm not especially 'purist', so modes, schmodes, whatever, the essentials are there. Others will rectify, that's not a bad thing either.
    Please do not take remarks made here as 'hate'; most of the more aggressive tones are really just strong feelings on the subject, or a particular type of humour. Very seldom is any real personal insult intended. Don't absorb the words used , but rather the underlying sense; that's my advice. You're doing fine; it only takes another forty years or so to get that 'respect', so keep right on..!
    Quote Originally Posted by mr. beaumont
    ...Don't let Baltar phase ya, he'll grow on you...
    Hummm... Now there I'm not so sure... Gumbo, perhaps, but Baltar..?

  27. #26
    Awesome John
    Ordered your book

  28. #27

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    yeah very nice chart.

  29. #28
    Im completely self taught in theory, as far as my music teacher... the only real help Ive ever had was I asked my school music teacher the definition of a mode.
    But thanks I understand it now.

    There are 7 modes of the Major scale, there is no such thing as the Major mode.

  30. #29

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    There are 7 modes of the Major scale, there is no such thing as the Major mode.
    There is nothing named the Major mode, but there are modes that contain Major chord.

    Ionian: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8---C D E F G A B C---1 3 5 7 9 11 13---C E G B D F A
    Lydian: 1 2 3 #4 5 6 7 8---C D E F# G A B C---1 3 5 7 9 #11 13---C E G B D F# A
    Harmonic Major 1st degree: 1 2 3 4 5 b6 7 8---C D E F G Ab B C---1 3 5 7 9 11 b13---C E G B D F Ab
    Harmonic Minor 6th degree: 1 #2 3 #4 5 6 7 8---C D# E F# G A B C---1 3 5 7 #9 #11 13---C E G B D# F# A

    The 1st two are common and the other two less so.

    Pentatonics also can represent major chords

    Major Pentatonic: 1 2 3 5 6---C D E G A C---1 3 5 6 9---C E G A D

    Other pentatonics can be generated by extracting them from modes or by starting with a chord and filling in the missing note(s).
    Here's a few using the latter method, structures containing C E G.

    C D E G Ab
    C Db E G A
    C Db E G Ab
    C D# E G A
    C D# E G Ab
    C D E G B
    C Db E G B
    C D# E G B
    C E F# G A
    C E F# G B

  31. #30

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    pls xplain playin the chord

  32. #31

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    Well, for me at least, that is the clearest and most user-friendly explanation of scales I've ever read. It cleared up questions I've pondered since childhood in one morning of study and reflection. The trouble I have always had with beginner books on music theory is that they never address this interval thing from the start. Most go straight to showing pictures of notes on staves with sharps, flats etc. The staff is a fairly abbreviated symbolic representation and if you don't know what hides beneath that, therein confusion lies. For years I believed that what we called the major scale was made up of evenly spaced tones, with a semitone between each. It must be a conditioning of my western ear as that was what my perception told me when I heard a major scale. And look - there's the proof! The notes of C major all nicely, evenly spaced out on the stave. The flats and sharps of the other keys was a weirdness I couldn't penetrate because of my false preconception. It was therefore with shock and wonder when I later learned there were two things called tetrachords, stacked together, with that surprising semitone interval at the end of each. Was that what I was really hearing? I had to convince myself by watching my fingers on the piano and listening hard. Incidentally, the piano also tricks the unsuspecting. How did I know there was only a semitone between B-C and E-F. (Perhaps there should be a "learners piano": All white notes, all semitones, that you can write on and colour in with erasable pens, while you figure out various relationships.) Anyway, this is a big piece of the puzzle for me while I begin to figure out chord relationships. Great job, Cravingmusic - you should write a book!
    Last edited by terence1957; 04-01-2013 at 12:14 AM.

  33. #32

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    John... thanks. Im 14, completely self taught, worked my ass off to learn all of this. I was just trying to help others out and put all the information in one place just like I wanted when I first started. Calling me an ignorant arsehole (Its spelled asshole buddy...) is totally a way to make me wanna keep playing jazz.

    Now aside from your ignorance towards others who dont know nearly as much as you, is there anything else you see wrong with my lesson?
    Without going into merit of your first post, obviously, you are not self taught, you've already said you learned some of this from your teacher, so ...

  34. #33

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    Ha, ha,


    just realised I replied to a post from 2011, thnk you for that Terence, is the "wise kid" still arround?

  35. #34

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    Quote Originally Posted by Vladan
    Ha, ha,


    just realised I replied to a post from 2011, thnk you for that Terence, is the "wise kid" still arround?

    Yes, this is probably a bit redundant, Vladan - sorry for that. I didn't realise myself until after I'd hit send.

  36. #35

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    Don't be sorry, it was a pleasure , like being young again.

  37. #36

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  38. #37

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    Thank you, Javier - excellent! I could have done with this a ways back.

  39. #38

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    solomarce1 - That's an interesting video. Is there anything that this information can be useful for in playing? Or is it just a good way to learn major scales?

  40. #39

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    Funny thing is that the way the OP originally stated things is pretty much the way that Jimmy Bruno teaches it. Sure he's teaching modes but he doesn't address them the same. He uses the term pitch collection..not original but interesting.

    In his initial lesson JB sits at the piano and plays a C - C scale, then plays it D - D and G - G. He talks about how you have the notes of the C pitch collection on the white keys and the black keys are "outside" notes. He then plays a very nice improvisation over a ii-V-I progression in C showing how you can just use the white keys to make music. Later he adds the "outside" note to cover extensions etc.

    I think that while it's not correct according to the book that it's a very simple and effective way to get people to start making music without being overwhelmed with terms, and as human nature would have it, we like to see/hear results in a short time.

    So maybe "the kid" isn't that far off....Hell maybe it's Jimmy masquerading as the kid.

    The tone of extreme responses to the OP way back when are outside my understanding, no matter what his age. I thought for a moment that ksjazzguitar had returned.

  41. #40

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    Quote Originally Posted by ColinO
    solomarce1 - That's an interesting video. Is there anything that this information can be useful for in playing? Or is it just a good way to learn major scales?
    Quote Originally Posted by terence1957
    Thank you, Javier - excellent! I could have done with this a ways back.
    Well, each chord has a scale and some variations of scales that can be used. Most of these scales come from A Major scale even Minor and you will always use those in your improv, now, if you want to get a little fancy you can go chromatic just make sure you revolve around your chord tones 1, 3, 5, 7 (by these I mean: end whatever crazyness you get going on the one chord tone note). I just learned that 1 and 5 have a good pole attraction, this means it is good to resolve in them, they give a sense of stability.That will give you some sense of direction and your improv will sound better. Try to not start in 1... thats already in the chord and bass, its good to resolve there though. LOL I just learned these on my last class.
    Last edited by solomarce1; 04-18-2013 at 03:14 PM.

  42. #41

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    ^^^^
    Thanks. I get that the major scale is useful. I just thought that the point that the first four notes of the I are the same as the last four notes of the IV and that the last four notes of the I are the same as the first four notes of the V is interesting and was wondering if that knowledge has any practical application in either comping or improvising or whether it is just one of those neat factoids that we run across from time to time?

  43. #42

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    Quote Originally Posted by ColinO
    ^^^^
    Thanks. I get that the major scale is useful. I just thought that the point that the first four notes of the I are the same as the last four notes of the IV and that the last four notes of the I are the same as the first four notes of the V is interesting and was wondering if that knowledge has any practical application in either comping or improvising or whether it is just one of those neat factoids that we run across from time to time?
    Yes, you can always do for example arpeggios of the IV in the I and it gives it a neat flavor... Try it out, very related, just explore and your ears will tell you a lot

  44. #43

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    Quote Originally Posted by solomarce1
    make sure you revolve around your chord tones 1, 3, 5, 7
    Some resolution notes are stronger than others, from the chord tones, I think the Root has the weakest resolution.

    IMO, I'd say that the order for strength of resolution is: 5th, 3rd, 9th, 7th, 6th, Root.

    Guy

  45. #44

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    Quote Originally Posted by garydriver5
    Learning basic music theory is absolutely necessary to communicate with other musicians. Whether we are writing a song together, playing a show on stage, or just jamming at the house, we have to know how to talk about what it is we're playing.
    This is so true. We use two different bassists in the band I'm currently working with and I prepare simple chord charts for them that they can't follow, don't see the simple repetition of ii-V-Is and as a result miss things. It's very frustrating not to able to make a simple statement like "it's just rhythm changes".

  46. #45

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    According to my teacher 1 & 5 have a great gravity pull and less tension. I will ask more so I can be sure of what I am saying, I could be wrong.

  47. #46

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    Quote Originally Posted by cravingmusic
    Thanks for the encouragement
    Again if you see anything wrong with my lesson please let me know, I'd rather get cussed out and learn what's wrong than just have someone pass it up.
    a few hints about terminology is all you need.


    modes are synonymous with scales for the most part, with medieval church music being an example of an exception to this oversimplification.

    learn the concepts of major scale, minor scale, tonality, and key.


    some good theory books for beginners:

    Aaron Shearer - the one with the yellow cover.
    ABRSM resources.
    college textbooks by Bruce Benward and others

    and then there is "jazz theory" or "modern harmony" that emphasizes contemporary, jazz and popoular practices.
    Last edited by fumblefingers; 04-28-2013 at 09:54 PM.